A Quick Look at the Pomeranian…

The Pomeranian is a very lively and devoted pet, who is not shy or quiet by any means. He is a bold (and even cocky) companion who has a big personality despite his small size. This toy breed is rather independent and not afraid of larger dogs; there is little that intimidates him. He has natural instinct to protect his home and his family, and he loves to use his voice, making him a great watchdog.

Poms, as they are commonly nicknamed, are often thought of as having a fox-like appearance, which is due to their triangular face, puffy coat, and is especially true of the dogs with the popular orange and red coat color variation. Pomeranians are very loyal, loving and intelligent companions. Despite their proud nature, they have an affectionate and docile temper and are very endearing.

Here are some fast facts about the Pomeranian:

Dog Group:
Northern, Spitz Family/Toy Group
Recognized By:
Dogs – 3 – 7 lbs (1.3 – 3 kg)
Bitches – 3 – 7 lbs (1.3 – 3 kg)
Dogs – 7 – 12 in. (18 – 30 cm)
Bitches – 7 – 12 in. (18 – 30 cm)
Average litter size:
1 – 2 puppies
Life expectancy:

Health problems:
Coat care:
Exercise needs:
Suitable for children:
Pet compatibility:
Barking frequency:

Brief History

The Pomeranian was named for the region where it was developed, Pomerania, which is now present day Germany and Poland. Poms were developed from the ancient Spitz breeds, initially weighed as much as 30 pounds, and were used for sheep herding. Pomeranians were eventually bred smaller, and throughout history this toy breed has been loved by many famous people including, Marie Antoinette, Mozart and Queen Victoria.  In 1888, Queen Victoria started to breed and show the dogs, and due to her love and enthusiasm for this pooch, she dramatically influenced his popularity.

The Pomeranian was recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1888. While they have always been a wonderful companion, they also excel at agility, being a watchdog, performing tricks, and are even great circus dogs.

Pomeranian Breed Appearance and Characteristics

General Appearance – Pomeranians are small dogs that have a wedge-shaped head that is proportioned with their body. They have a short muzzle that is fine and straight with a well pronounced stop. The color of the Pom’s nose will vary depending on the color of the coat. They have almond shaped, medium and dark eyes, and their small ears are erect and sit high on their head. Their tail lies flat and straight over their back and is well feathered.

The double coat of the Pomeranian is abundant. The under layer is soft, short and thick, while the outer coast is straight, long, and harsh to the touch. The fur is longer in the chest and neck regions of the dog. The coat can be different colors and patterns, such as red, orange, brown, cream, white, blue, black, black and tan, orange sable, wolf sable, brindle and parti-color (white with colored markings).

Typical Temperament – Poms are a very intelligent, independent and a proud breed. They are affectionate and loyal companions that develop a strong bond with their family. They are eager to please, have a gentle temper, are highly inquisitive and alert. They are brave dogs that have a strong instinct to protect their owners and will bark at anything they consider a threat or suspicious. Hence, they make ideal guard and watchdogs.

Despite their tiny physique, Pomeranians do not make good lap dogs. Owners need to be careful that they don’t carry around or coddle this dog too much or they can develop dominance issues, and will try to take control as pack leader. Furthermore, because of their size, they are not recommended for young children, as they can be easily injured by careless and thoughtless kids. They are better suited to families with older and more responsible children who know how to interact with and respect the dog. Poms will get along well with other household pets if they are properly socialized with them.

In order to make sure the Pomeranian develops into a beautiful and mentally healthy companion, he needs to be well socialized at a young age. He also requires firm training and needs to know his place in his pack.

Basic Pomeranian Care Requirements

Grooming – The long, thick, double layered coat of the Pomeranian requires a brushing every other day at the very least. Though it can be a lengthy process, if you start at the head of the dog, part the coat and brush it forward, the fur will fall neatly back into place, making the grooming session easier. The coat may require the occasional trim and should be dry shampooed only when necessary. Poms are average shedders and shed their undercoat once or twice per year.

Their eyes and ears should be checked daily and cleaned when needed. Nails should be clipped on a monthly basis, and their teeth brushed every few days to help maintain good oral health.

Exercise – This is an active breed and they will enjoy outdoor activity and should be provided with a daily 20 minute walk, as well as the freedom to run around off lead in an enclosed space whenever possible. That said, the Pom is very lively indoors and much of his exercise needs can be taken care of through play and romping about. Nevertheless, they still should be taken outside every day to fulfill their natural instinct to walk, as this will do wonders for both the mental and physical health. Note: Due to their thick double coat, Poms are sensitive to heat and should not be exercised in hot temperatures.

Approximate Food Cost – Most Pomeranians eat anywhere from ¾ of a cup – 1 cup of dry dog food per day, at an estimated monthly cost of $5 – $10.

General Health Information

Despite being one of the hardiest toy breeds, Pomeranians are susceptible to certain health issues, such as patella luxation (dislocated kneecap), eye infections, skin problems, heart ailments, dental issues (early tooth loss and decay), dwarfism, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), and open fontanel (opening in the front of the skull). Puppies are very fragile when they are in their developing stages and can easily break bones and should be discouraged from jumping off or on to high surfaces.
Common Illnesses include: patella luxation, heart problems, skin irritations and eye infections.

Are You the Right Pomeranian Owner?

Living conditions – Pomeranians are good apartment dogs.  They do not require a yard to be happy, are quite active within the home and can obtain most of the exercise they need indoors. They should, however, still be taken outside every day for a good walk.

Training – Pomeranians need firm and steady training and early socialization in order to ensure that they do not display negative behaviors, including a dominate attitude, and unfriendly temperament and excessive barking. If not provided with control, they will become difficult to manage. These are independent dogs and will seek the role of the leader if not provided with one. Essentially, owners must never lose sight of the fact that while small and cute, Pomeranians are still dogs and should be treated with this respect.

A Pom handler needs to be consistent and direct yet gentle when teaching commands. This pooch is very smart and is eager to please, and will learn quickly and excel at training if provided with the proper guidance. These dogs shine at many skills including tricks, show ring, and even at search and rescue, as well as companions for those who are hearing impaired.

Common Problems – Small dog syndrome can be a real problem with this breed if owners are not careful in their training and handling methods. Because he is so tiny and sweet, many people make the mistake of wanting to cuddle and carry the dog around with them all the time. While a person may think this is a sign of affection, a Pom sees it as much more; they see it as the person telling them the Pom is higher up on the pack than the human. Thus, frequent coddling, and a lack of consistent obedience training, leads to negative behavioral problems, and a not so pleasant pet. In addition, this breed likes to bark, and if it is not controlled, it can become very annoying, as they will bark constantly if not properly commanded otherwise.

The bottom line…

Pomeranians are bright and vivacious dogs with an extroverted personality. They are outgoing dogs with a bold and wonderful temperament when provided with the proper social skills and obedience. They are energetic, love the companionship of people, and are excellent dogs for single owners, families with older and respectful children, and also the elderly. Possessing a brave and beautiful spirit, Poms are a popular toy breed who make phenomenal pets for those with every intention of providing them with the love, care and attention they deserve.

Filed Under: Pomeranian Training


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